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Clinical Profile and Outcome of Young Patients with Extrahepatic Biliary Obstruction at A High-Volume Tertiary Care Centre in Northern India
Ravi Kant Thakur, Vinod Kumar Dixit, Sunit Kumar Shukla, Dawesh Prakash Yadav, Piyush Thakur, Tuhin Mitra
Department of Gastroenterology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University.

Corresponding Author
Dr Vinod Kumar Dixit


Background and Aim: The etiology of extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) ranges from benign disorders to pancreaticobiliary malignancy. We studied the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic features of young patients with EHBO undergoing Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). 
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed one-year data of ERCP procedures performed on adult patients under 40 years of age. The diagnosis was based on a clinical and radiological basis with histopathological confirmation.
Results: A total of 180 patients were included with a mean(±SD) age of 33.4(±5.8, range: 15-40) years, and 67.8% being female. Benign (67.2%) findings included choledocholithiasis (57.8%), benign biliary stricture (9.44%, post cholecystectomy stricture 82.3%), and malignant (32.8%) causes were gallbladder carcinoma (24.4%), cholangiocarcinoma (4.4%), periampullary carcinoma (2.8%), pancreatic head carcinoma (1.1%). Clinical presentation included jaundice (66.1%), pain abdomen (59.4%), pruritis (26.1%), weight loss (19.4%), anorexia, fever, and cholangitis (24.44%). Mean bilirubin levels (16.9 ±6.8 vs 4.6 ±4.1 mg/dl) and alkaline phosphatase (1170 ± 260.7 vs 439.3 ± 362.7 IU/mL) were higher in malignant causes, in comparison to benign. Stone retrieval using balloon during ERCP was successful in 79% of cases. Large (>15 mm) or impacted stones or those with biliary stricture failed stone extraction. In gallbladder carcinoma, adequate endoscopic biliary drainage was achieved in 68% of patients. Endoscopic biliary drainage was achieved in 75%, 80%, and 50% cases of cholangiocarcinoma, periampullary carcinoma, and pancreatic head carcinoma, respectively. 
Conclusion: Choledocholithiasis and gallbladder carcinoma are the most common benign and malignant causes of EHBO in young patients. The successful endoscopic therapeutic intervention could be achieved in most patients.