Background: There have been sporadic reports of histoplasmosis from India. Although traditionally considered a disease of immunocompromised hosts, immunocompetent patients presenting with adrenal histoplasmosis have been reported. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) provides easy and safe approach to adrenal glands for fine needle aspiration.
Methods: We report 10 cases of adrenal histoplasmosis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided FNA. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 ± 9 years, all were males. Eight patients were immunocompetent while two had cirrhosis; none of them was retrovirus positive. All patients presented with fever and weight loss, 8 had bilateral adrenal enlargement while 2 had isolated left adrenal enlargement. EUS features included hypoechoic (30%) or heteroechoic (70%) adrenal glands, presence of hypoechoic areas suggestive of necrosis within the gland was identified in 40% of these patients. Adrenal insufficiency was present in 1 patient (10%) which persisted even after successful treatment.
Conclusion: Adrenal histoplasmosis should be considered even in immunocompetent hosts presenting with constitutional symptoms and adrenal enlargement. EUS guided FNA is a safe and accurate modality for adrenal sampling.